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The following resources provide more in-depth analysis and methodology for this research. For additional comparison among 50 states and the District of Columbia, visit our interactive map and state-by-state table.

The State of Career Technical Education: An Analysis of State Secondary CTE Funding Models

State investments in secondary CTE programs are complex and varied, ranging from $31 to $7,705 in funding per learner. At least 27 states have increased their state CTE funding over the last 10 years. The increase in the change of funding ranged from $76,300 to $2,888,959,549. The report highlights key takeaways and shares information based on a research scan conducted in 2022, a national survey of State CTE Directors in 2022, and in-depth interviews with state and local CTE leaders in 2023.

Executive Summary

An overview of key terms connected to secondary state Career Technical Education funding and a summary of key report findings.

State-by-State Funding Table

Explore this table on the site or as a downloadable spreadsheet for additional details about each state and the District of Columbia, including a description of its secondary Career Technical Education (CTE) funding formula, FY 2022 federal and state appropriations, and sources for each data point.


This resource details the definitions and sourcing for Advance CTE’s 2023 State of Career Technical Education: An Analysis of State Secondary CTE Funding Models resources, including the 50-state map, state-by-state table, state case studies, funding model identification and funding allocations.

State Case Study​

North Dakota

The Peace Garden State ranked ninth in the United States for CTE funding per learner, totaling $1,629 per learner in FY 2021-23. The state’s cost-based funding model reimburses schools for approved programs and sets reimbursement rates to align with differing program needs. Those programs are reimbursed at different rates depending on program type.


State Case Study


The Bay State ranked second in the United States for CTE funding per learner in FY 2022. Massachusetts’ unit-based funding formula accounts for unique district characteristics and the costs of educating learners with more needs.



State Case Study​


The Lone Star State is a top state for total state funding for secondary CTE programs, totaling $3,099,300,549 of categorical funding in FY 2022. The state’s tiered student-based funding model provides incentives for both completing and obtaining successful outcomes from CTE programs of study.