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State-by-State Funding

Explore this table on the site or as a downloadable spreadsheet for additional details about each state, including a description of its secondary Career Technical Education (CTE) funding formula, FY 2022 federal and state appropriations, and sources for each data point.

Visit the Secondary CTE Funding Basics page for more information about each funding model.

State-by-State Funding Table

  • Abbreviations used in this table:
  • ADM = Average Daily Membership
  • ATC = Area Technical Center
  • CLNA = Comprehensive Local Needs Assessment
  • CTE = Career Technical Education
  • CTSO = Career Technical Student Organization
  • FTE = Full-Time Equivalent

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***FY22 Funding Model: Approach

*AY11–12 Funding Model

***Secondary CTE Funding Model

**Total FY22 State Appropriation to Secondary CTE

***Estimated Total FY22 Federal Allocation of CTE Assistance to States

***Total FY22 Secondary CTE Enrollment

AlabamaCategorical: Unit-based approachCategorical: Unit-based approach

Alabama distributes K–12 funding based on foundation program units, which accounts for cost factors including teacher salaries, fringe benefits, classroom materials and related expenses for support personnel. Vocational education is weighted to reflect increased programmatic costs. Each Area Technical Center (ATC) also receives state funding for one principal and one school counselor on site.


The Code of Alabama 1975

FY22 Budget

AlaskaFoundationalCategorical: Student-based approach

Alaska does not determine funding based upon learner enrollers in CTE, but rather through a factor applied to the state foundational funding formula for all learners. Although the statutory language does designate spending for vocational programs, the factor applied is “independent of student participation in CTE” and local education agency (LEA) leadership “decide[s] how funds should be distributed across instructional priorities.” Alaska funds secondary CTE by applying weights to districts' average daily membership (ADM). A weight of 1.015 is applied for secondary school vocational and technical instruction funding.


Alaska Statutes 2022 14.17.410

Alaska Statutes 2022 14.17.420

Alaska Statutes 2022

ArizonaCategorical: Student-based approachCategorical: Student-based approach

In Arizona, the CTE State Priority Block Grant supports CTE programs in grades 7–12 and Career Technical Student Organizations (CTSOs). Seventy-five percent of state funds are awarded based on average daily membership of 9 to 12th grade students. The remaining 25 percent is allocated based on postsecondary education and employment placements. The FY22 budget bill enacted as permanent law allowances to career and technical education districts (CTEDs) to count in ADM students enrolled in programs included on the Office of Economic Opportunity in-demand regional education list and that remain enrolled in the same CTED program through at least the 40th day of their junior year of high school. It also permits CTEDs to receive ADM for pupils enrolled in internship programs and pupils enrolled in a CTED in the year immediately following graduation.


FY22 Agency Detail Book

State of Arizona Executive Budget State Agency Budgets Fiscal Year 2022

CTE State Priorities

ArkansasCategorical: Student-based approachFunding for area CTE centersArkansas vocational centers receive vocational center aid from the Public School Fund according to rules promulgated by the Career Education and Workforce Development Board. Secondary vocational area center funding is established by a tiered funding structure for distributing vocational center aid for each full time equivilent (FTE) student. Additionally, centers are eligible for a vocational program start-up state allocation that provides 4 million each year for new program implementation.$28,401,074$14,260,647113,868




Budget 1

Budget 2

CaliforniaHybridFunding for area CTE centers

California provides funding for CTE through various grant programs, which each have their own distribution formula. The grant programs are as follows: Career Technical Education Incentive Grant, Kindergarten through Grade Twelve Component of the Strong Workforce Program, Golden State Pathways Program and the California Partnership Academies.


Career Technical Education Incentive Grant

Strong Workforce Pro

Education Budget

Education Budget 2

Assembly Bill No. 181

ColoradoCategorical: Cost-based approachCategorical: Cost-based approach

Colorado provides additional funding to defray the cost if a district’s CTE program costs per participating FTE learner exceed 70 percent of the per-pupil funding otherwise available to that district. The state covers 80 percent of the first $1,250 of those excess costs and 50 percent of any excess costs above $1,250. CTE program costs include instructional personnel, services provided by another education agency or institution, necessary books and supplies and cost of equipment approved for purchased by the State Board for Community Colleges and Occupational Education.


Colo. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 23-8-102(1)(b)

FY22 Budget

Code of Colorado Regulations

ConnecticutCategorical: Student-based approachFunding for area CTE centersEach of the 16 technical education centers and career schools in the Connecticut Technical High School System (CTHSS) submits a proposed budget to the Superintendent of the Technical Education and Career System for the next succeeding school year. The superintendent then prepares a budget proposal for the CTHSS and submits it to the State Board of Education. Pell grant numbers are used to determine allotments through a student-based formula for both secondary and postsecondary programs.$184,800,000$11,797,221107,074

Conn. Gen. Stat. Ann. § 10-99g

FY22 Appropriations Committee

Budget Bill

DelawareCategorical: Unit-based approachCategorical: Unit-based approachDelaware funds secondary education based on pupil units. One CTE pupil unit is equivalent to 30 students receiving 180 minutes of instruction in approved CTE courses per day for five days a week (or 27,000 instructional minutes). CTE pupil units are weighted at one, two or three times the regular pupil units, depending on funding rates established by the state for different types of CTE programs. CTE funds are intended to cover the cost of staffing, textbooks, furniture and classroom equipment.Unidentified$6,035,65328,297

Del. Code Ann. tit. 14, § 1703

District of ColumbiaFoundationalFoundationalNot applicableNot applicable$5,614,0663,724

D.C. Code Ann. § 38-2903

FY22 Budget

FloridaCategorical: Student-based approachCategorical: Student-based approachIn Florida, CTE is funded through a weighted FTE cost-factor. Florida applies a multiplier of 1.012 to the base per-pupil amount for students enrolled in CTE programs. Additional FTE values can be generated for students who complete an industry-certified career or professional academy program and who are issued the highest level of industry certification and a high school diploma.Unidentified$79,734,127322,519

Fla. Stat. Ann. § 1011.62

H.B. 5001

GeorgiaCategorical: Student-based approachCategorical: Student-based approachGeorgia funds CTE through a formula that considers FTE enrollment and student-teacher ratios. General and career education instruction are included under the same instructional program, with student FTE weighted at 1.0 based on a 1:23 teacher-to-student ratio. Career, technical, and agricultural education laboratory programs generate an additional FTE weight of 1.183 and assume a teacher-to-student ratio of 1:20. Subject to legislative appropriations, Georgia has a number of CTE grant programs including to support industry certification and youth apprenticeship programs.Unidentified$49,545,096515,612

Ga. Code Ann. § 20-2-161

FY22 Budget

H.B. 910

Hawai'iCategorical: Student-based approachCategorical: Student-based approachIn Hawaiii, the school board adopts a weighted student formula for the allocation of funds to public schools that takes into account the educational needs of each student. CTE also receives a program allocation.$6,796,287$6,725,49126,256

Haw. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 302A-1303.6

FY22 Appropriation

IdahoCategorical: Unit-based approachCategorical: Unit-based approachIn Idaho, the amount of direct funding provided for each career technical school is based on three factors which determine unit values: the number of students enrolled in a capstone course in the previous year, the number of students who completed the technical skills assessment for each program offered and the total credit hours reported by the school for intermediate, capstone and work-based learning courses. Districts also receive added-cost funds to cover instructor and program expenses beyond those normally encountered at the secondary level. Allocations are calculated based on CTE teacher FTE.$23,683,100$8,371,56544,301

55.01.03 – Rules of Career Technical Schools

Added-cost Funds

FY22 Budget

IllinoisHybridCategorical: Student-based approachIllinois provides categorical funding to CTE as competitive and formula grants. Education for Employment Systems regional delivery systems receive formula grants. Competitive grants for state leadership initiatives are awarded through a request for proposals process.$43,060,000$48,668,688228,428

105 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 5/18-8.15

FY22 Budget Details

FY22 Budget

IndianaCategorical: Student-based approachCategorical: Student-based approachIndiana provides CTE funding in the form of grants to schools with approved CTE programs. The allocation amount is based on the number of CTE program credit hours, enrollment and a value level attributed by the Department of Workforce development, as well as enrollment in apprenticeship or work-based learning, introductory CTE programs or college and career courses.$168,000,000$31,159,24674,193

IC 20-43-8-15

IowaCategorical: Student-based approachCategorical: Cost-based approachIn Iowa, fifty percent of funding is based on student counts. The other 50 percent of funding is split evenly between the 15 regional planning partnerships. Iowa reimburses CTE programs for eligible costs including salary and travel for instructors. High school student enrollment in community college CTE courses is also weighted in Iowa's student-based cost formula for school funding.$3,550,646$13,853,092113,975

Iowa Code Chapter 257.1

Iowa Administrative Code 281

Iowa Budget Report 2022-2023

KansasCategorical: Student-based approachCategorical: Student-based approachKansas school districts receive an additional weight determined by multiplying the district CTE FTE enrollment in approved programs by 0.5. In addition, through the Excel in CTE program, the legislature provides an appropriation to cover students' tuition in approved postsecondary tiered technical courses and half of licensure/certification exam fees.Unidentified$12,458,84849,667

Kansas School Finance System

KentuckyCategorical: Student-based approachCategorical: Student-based approach"Kentucky appropriates funds for CTE to state-operated area technology centers (ATCs), as well as locally-operated technical centers and comprehensive high schools. Funds are distributed as supplementary funds to all locally-operated schools. The state’s formula for locally-operated programs provides a multiplier of 1.5 to the base FTE value for high-cost CTE programs. Additional state funding supports the operation of Kentucky’s 50 ATCs, as well as secondary students who pursue CTE coursework within the Kentucky Community and Technical College System. House Bill 1 (2022), known as the 2022–2024 Kentucky Executive Branch Budget, provided historic investments for secondary CTE. An additional $58M was appropriated in both years of the biennium for locally-operated CTE programs, providing financial support for comprehensive high school programs for the first time ever. An additional $6 million over the biennium was also appropriated to support increased operational funds for the state-operated ATCs, as well as necessary rank and step increases for ATC personnel. "$64,782,800$21,143,647138,189

2022-2024 Executive Budget

LouisianaHybridCategorical: Unit-based approach

Public schools in Louisiana are eligible for state funds for CTE offerings from three sources: (1) Minimum foundation program (MFP) Career Development Funds (CDF), which are 6 percent of the MFP State and Local Base Cost Per Pupil ($241) for learners in grades 9-12 enrolled in approved courses. Funds may be used for teacher training or certification; equipment and facilities, including industry recognized credentials; Nepris or other necessary technology licenses/equipment and student transportation (2) MFP Career and Technical (CTE) funding, which provides a weight of 6 percent for each CTE course per learner per fall and spring semesters. These funds must be spent on personnel, professional services, instructional materials, equipment, and supplies for the unique courses that generate such funds. (3) MFP Supplemental Course Allocation, also known as Course Choice. In FY 2021–22, Louisiana provided $59 per learner to approved Course Choice providers based on the previous year's February 1 count. Funds may be used for tuition, courses that render students eligible for Taylor Opportunity Program for Students, remediation to support students' on-time graduation, services for students with disabilities and courses that allow students to earn a Jump Start Career Diploma.


2021-22 Jump Start guidance from the Louisiana Department of Education

Minimum Foundation Program

MaineCategorical: Cost-based approachCategorical: Cost-based approach

In FY 2022, the total allocation for a CTE center or CTE region was the sum of the following components and and their cost calculations: direct instruction; central administration; supplies and other expenditures such as purchased services, dues and fees for instructional programs; plant operation and maintenance, including all costs for operating and maintaining buildings and grounds and their student and staff support, which includes costs for student services coordination, career preparation, instructional technology, professional development, student assessment and program safety.


FY2021-2022 Funding Details

FY22 CTE Centers and Regions Summary and Estimate Funding Levels

General Fund Bill Language

MarylandFoundationalFoundationalNot applicableNot applicable$19,645,329122,519

MD Code, Education, § 7-127

MassachusettsCategorical: Unit-based approachCategorical: Unit-based approachIn Massachusetts, incremental educational aid funding is administered per student based on reported enrollment in approved CTE programming. Additional factors for incremental funding include designations of English Language Learners and learners with low-income.$388,000,000$22,451,55963,660

M.G.L.A. 70 § 3 DOE Chapter 70 Program

MichiganCategorical: Student-based approachCategorical: Student-based approach

Michigan reimburses districts for CTE programs, up to 75 percent, and prioritizes added cost reimbursements based on factors including the capital and program expenditures needed to operate the CTE programs provided; the number of learners enrolled; the advancement of learners through the instructional program; the existence of an articulation agreement with at least one postsecondary institution that provides pupils with opportunities to earn postsecondary credit during the learner's participation in the CTE program and transfers those credits to the postsecondary institution upon completion of the CTE program; and the program rank in student placement, job openings and wages.


State School Aid Act of 1979

2021 M.C.L.A. 388.1661a

2021 H.B. 4411 (Public Act 48)

MinnesotaHybridCategorical: Cost-based approachMinnesota uses foundational funding along with an optional cost-based model with CTE revenue for districts and is only for some of the costs associated to CTE programs. A school district is eligible for revenue of 35 percent of approved expenditures for salaries, contracted services, necessary travel for specified purposes, curriculum development activities, and specialized instructional supplies. The career and technical revenue equalizing factor for fiscal year 2015 and later is $7,612.Unidentified$20,524,984121,915

M.S.A. § 124D.4531

MississippiCategorical: Unit-based approachCategorical: Unit-based approachMississippi supports CTE through an additional allotment to school districts for teachers employed in a CTE program at a value of one half of the adequate education program salary schedule, based on the type of certificate and number of years’ teaching experience held by each approved vocational teacher in addition to 100 percent of the applicable employer’s rate for Social Security and State Retirement.$47,288,125$15,313,91926,270

Miss. Code. Ann. § 37-151-79

2021 HB 1387

MissouriCategorical: Unit-based approachCategorical: Cost-based approachMissouri allocates funding to ATCs and comprehensive high schools through base funding to assist with the costs of implementing CTE, career education time devoted by educators, student credits earned (ATCs only) and performance funding for programs that achieve success in the positive placement of program completers.$50,069,028$27,205,718122,247

FY22 Appropriations Bill

CTE Funding

MontanaCategorical: Student-based approachCategorical: Student-based approachMontana uses a grant program model to allocate state CTE funds. Districts apply to the Superintendent of Public Instruction for funds. Program allocations are made to districts based on CTE enrollment, student-based organizations, extended-days and district expenditures.$1,500,000$6,496,48227,201

20-7-305, MCA

2021 H.B. 2

NebraskaFoundationalFoundationalNot applicable

Not applicable


Nebraska Revised Statute 79-775

NevadaHybridCategorical: Student-based approachNevada makes a biennial appropriation to support CTE. The appropriation must be allocated as follows: 30 percent distributed through grants to applicant school districts and charter schools and ≤ 5 percent to support CTSOs who apply to the state board for grant funds. If any funds remain after these two distributions, up to 7.5 percent of the state appropriation may be used to offer leadership and training activities. If any funds remain from the biennial appropriation after these three distributions, a district or charter school may apply to the State Board of Education for a CTE program grant, to be paid from the remainder of funds, and awarded based on criteria set by the state board. Applications to receive state allocations funds must describe how funds will support equity and access at schools with student populations most in neeed, with special attention to those schools most in need of improving graduation rates.$24,979,322$12,351,75170,475

NRS 388.390 - 388.397

2021 S.B. 459 (Chapter 434)

State Allocation Grant RFA

New HampshireCategorical: Cost-based approachFunding for area CTE centers

New Hampshire provides funding for a portion of sending district's tuition and transportation costs for students attending CTE centers in the prior year. The state has also authorized the establishment of a revolving fund for capital improvement costs for the replacement or upgrading of equipment, or for aiding instruction. Monies added to the fund are the revenues from non-school district sources generated by career and technical educational programs in excess of legitimate and customary school district expenses.


N.H. Rev. Stat. § 188-E:6

N.H. Rev. Stat. § 188-E:11

New JerseyCategorical: Cost-based approachFunding for area CTE centersIn New Jersey, county vocational districts receive state funds through a weighted base pupil amount (1.26) in the state's Adequacy Budget formula.Unidentified$27,654,59577,428

NJ School Boards Association School Finance 101

New MexicoCategorical: Student-based approachFoundationalNew Mexico awards state CTE funding directly to LEAs, according to the Perkins allocation formula and rules of administration. All LEAs are assigned to one of ten CTE regions, each of which conducts a biennial comprehensive local needs assessment (CLNA). Recipients submit an application that matches their allocation. Half of state CTE funding must be spent on pre-approved programs of study that align to regional CLNA priorities. The other half may be budgeted to non-priority programs and additional CTE supports.$10,000,000$10,061,71465,759

N. M. S. A. § 21-1-13

N. M. S. A. § 21-1-12

Establishing Effective Career Technical Education Programs

2021 H.B. 2

New YorkCategorical: Student-based approachFunding for area CTE centersNew York funds CTE through aid to Boards of Cooperative Educational Services (BOCES) and through allocations to school districts that do not participate in BOCES. The latter value is computed by multiplying, for weighted pupils, a career education aid ratio by $3,900. The career aid ratio considers the wealth ratio of a district.Unidentified$61,643,407113,469

N.Y. Educ. Law § 3602

North CarolinaCategorical: Student-based approachCategorical: Student-based approachIn North Carolina, each district receives a base allotment and all remaining funds are distributed relative to ADM for grades 8–12.Unidentified$46,919,752542,695

N.C.G.S.A. § 115C-156

North DakotaCategorical: Cost-based approachCategorical: Cost-based approachIn North Dakota, funds are appropriated to the State Board for Career and Technical Education to reimburse districts providing CTE instruction. The funding covers partial reimbursements to districts for CTE instructional salaries, extended educator contracts, travel and other approved costs, and new and expanded program offerings. North Dakota identified reimbursement rates at different percentage rates for CTE programs offered in grades 9 through 12.$41,700,000$5,614,06625,604

NDCC, 15-20.1-06 2021

S.B. 2019

OhioCategorical: Student-based approachCategorical: Student-based approach

Ohio learners generate additional ADM for the percentage of time they are enrolled in any of five categories of CTE programs: Category 1: A multiple of 0.6230 for learners enrolled in career-technical education workforce development programs in agricultural and environmental systems, construction technologies, engineering and science technologies, finance, health science, information technology, and manufacturing technologies Category 2: A multiple of 0.5905 for learners enrolled in workforce development programs in business and administration, hospitality and tourism, human services, law and public safety, transportation systems, and arts and communications Category 3: A multiple of 0.2154 for learners enrolled in career-based intervention programs Category 4: A multiple of 0.1830 for learners enrolled in workforce development programs in education and training, marketing, workforce development academics, public administration, and career development Category 5: A multiple of 0.1570 for learners enrolled in family and consumer science programs The multiple for career-technical education associated services, as defined by the department, shall be 0.0294.


R.C. § 3317.014

LBO Greenbook for the Ohio Department of Education

OklahomaCategorical: Cost-based approachCategorical: Cost-based approach

Secondary and adult education in technology centers: "The State Board will fund a portion of the cost of instruction and services in accordance with an approved technology center funding formula. The Department shall consider enrollment, number of school sites in the district, number of instructors employed on a full-time basis, transportation, availability of funds, provision of appropriate student services for all students and appropriate state and federal laws in developing the annual technology center funding budget."

Secondary programs in comprehensive schools: "The State Board will assist local districts in providing for excess costs of CareerTech programs. . . . These monies shall be used to support the additional costs of the CareerTech program limited to the purchase of equipment, instructional delivery and supplies, and staff development. . . . New CareerTech programs will receive equipment matching funds in the first year of operation, if funding is available. If funding is available, matching funds will be provided to existing programs."


Okla. Admin. Code 780:10-5-4

2021 H.B. 2900

OregonFoundationalFoundationalNot applicableNot applicable$16,730,850159,372

O.R.S. § 344.075

O.R.S. § 327.372

H.B. 3072

PennsylvaniaCategorical: Student-based approachCategorical: Student-based approachPennsylvania provides districts a reimbursement for specified CTE programs. Reimbursement is calculated by a formula based on reported ADM in vocational programs. Pennsylvania also provides grant funds for CTE equipment, totalling $5,550,000.$104,550,000$48,355,45157,709

24 P.S. Education § 25-2502.8.

2021 S.B. 255

24 P.S. § 25-2508.1.

Rhode IslandCategorical: Cost-based approachCategorical: Cost-based approachRhode Island supports CTE by reimbursing costs to help meet initial investment requirements needed to transform existing, or create new, comprehensive,CTE programs and career pathways in critical and emerging industries and to help offset the higher-than-average costs associated with facilities, equipment maintenance and repair, and supplies necessary for maintaining the quality of highly specialized programs that are a priority for the state.Unidentified$6,725,49117,991

R.I. Gen. Laws § 16-7.2-6


South CarolinaCategorical: Student-based approachCategorical: Student-based approachSouth Carolina funds CTE through weighting its foundational formula by 1.20 and 1.29 for learners enrolled in pre-career and technology and career and technology programs, respectively. Additionally, districts are awarded annual funding of at least $50,000, based on prior-year CTE program enrollment. These funds may be expended for the purchase of career and technical equipment, the up fitting of facilities and the purchase of consumables, regional career specialists and evidence-based initiatives such as High Schools that Work and Project Lead the Way.Unidentified$23,503,762205,250

2021 H.B. 4100

S.C. Code Ann. § 59-20-40

South DakotaFoundationalFoundationalNot applicableNot applicable$5,725,81123,764

SDCL § 13-13-89

SDCL § 13-39-56

2021 S.B. 195

TennesseeCategorical: Student-based approachCategorical: Unit-based approach

The Tennessee Investment in Student Achievement (TISA) Formula supports CTE by directly allocating per-learner supplemental funding for: (A) A learner assigned to the first year of a level one ( 1) career and technical program; (B) A learner assigned to the second year of a level one (1) career and technical program; (C) A learner assigned to the third year of a level one (1) career and technical program; (D) A learner assigned to the fourth year of a level one (1) career and technical program; (E) A learner assigned to the first year of a level two (2) career and technical program; (F) A learner assigned to the second year of a level two (2) career and technical program; (G) A learner assigned to the third year of a level two (2) career and technical program; (H) A learner assigned to the fourth year of a level two (2) career and technical program; (I) A learner assigned to the first year of a level three (3) career and technical program; (J) A learner assigned to the second year of a level three (3) career and technical program; (K) A learner assigned to the third year of a level three (3) career and technical program; and (L) A learner assigned to the fourth year of a level three (3) career and technical program. TISA was enacted in May 2022 and will go into effect during the 2023–2024 school year.


Tennessee Investment in Student Achievement (TISA) Formula

Public Chapter No. 966

FY22 Budget

TexasCategorical: Student-based approachCategorical: Student-based approach

Texas supports CTE by applying a multiplier to its funding policy for each FTE equivalent learner in an approved CTE program in grades 7–12: - 1.1 for a FTE learner in CTE courses not in an approved program of study, - 1.28 for a FTE learner in level 1 and 2 CTE courses in an approved program of study and - 1.47 for a FTE learner in CTE courses in level 3 and 4 CTE courses in an approved program of study. A district is also entitled to $50 for each learner in ADA enrolled in a P-TECH school or a campus that is a member of the New Tech Network and that focuses on project-based learning and work-based education.



Tex. Educ. Code Ann. § 48.106

Tiered CTE Weighted Funding

UtahHybridCategorical: Student-based approach

Utah uses a base-plus formula for state CTE add-on funds. The base consists of funds for CTE administration based on the type of dedicated support at each LEA and funding for each 9–12 school based on CTE offerings. Remaining funds are allocated based on participation and membership in CTE courses including CTSOs, summer agriculture programs, skill certification, middle school college and career Awareness, and work-based learning.


U.C.A. § 53F-2-311

Budget of the State of Utah Fiscal Years 2022 and 2023

CTE Funding

S.B. 1 Public Education Base Budget Amendments

VermontCategorical: Student-based approachFunding for area CTE centersVermont supports CTE by distributing funds from the Education Fund to career technical centers. For each FTE student, the career technical center receives 87 percent of the base education amount from the Education Fund. This amount is subtracted from the amount due to the sending district. Additionally, career technical centers are appropriated a supplemental assistance grant per FTE student equal to 35 percent of the base education amount that year. If enrollment grows by 20 percent or more from the previous year, career technical centers may receive extra supplemental assistance.$15,514,300$5,614,0664,956

Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 16, § 1561

FY22 Budget

VirginiaCategorical: Cost-based approachCategorical: Cost-based approachVirginia funds CTE by reimbursing districts to support the operation, improvement and expansion of CTE. Allocations are based on FTE enrollments and can be used to support principals and assistant principals of technical education centers, instructor contracts, approved equipment and approved industry recognized credentials.$11,681,872$31,070,269297,677

8 VAC 20-120-30

FY22 Budget

WashingtonCategorical: Unit-based approachCategorical: Student-based approachWashington uses a resource-based formula to distribute funds to CTE. Its allocation is based on FTE student-teacher ratios of 23:1 for comprehensive high schools and 20:1 for a skills center. CTE students also generate additional units to support the costs of certain certified instructional and administrator staff.Unidentified$24,994,750168,399

RCW 28A.150.260

2021 S.B. 5092

West VirginiaCategorical: Student-based approachCategorical: Student-based approach

Secondary CTE funds in West Virginia are distributed in three categories: (1) Secondary Block Grant: Secondary block funds are based on a formula that is allocated to institutions to support CTE. The secondary block grant may be used to support CTE courses and programs of study that serve learners in grades 6–12 and meet secondary education programs of study or CTE courses outlined in West Virginia Board of Education (WVDE) policy 2520.13 related to CTE. The Secondary Block formula is based on CTE performance and enrollment. (2) Equipment replacement: Equipment replacement funds are allocated from WVDE to support schools in maintaining, updating and/or replacing outdated equipment within the CTE classroom. The formula used to allocate equipment replacement funds is the same formula used to allocate secondary block funds. (3) Multi-county grant funding: Funds that are sent to multi-county career centers to cover administrative costs associated with managing financial budgets and grants within their fiscal agent’s purview. The fiscal agent is awarded the multi-county administration grant to provide financial services to the multi-county career centers.


FY22 Budget

2021 H.B. 2022

WisconsinFoundationalFoundationalNot ApplicableNot Applicable$24,446,105168,399

Legal Requirements 2021 Wisconsin Act 58

WyomingCategorical: Student-based approachCategorical: Student-based approach

In Wyoming, CTE computations within the education resource block grant model shall be based upon: (1) The number of learners enrolled in grades nine 9–12 participating in CTE programs on a FTE basis, as computed in accordance with guidelines established by the department of education; (2) CTE programs offered in grades 9–12 consisting of a sequence of three or more career and technical courses in an occupational area or career cluster that provides learners with the technical knowledge, skills or proficiencies necessary to obtain employment in current or emerging occupations or to pursue advanced skill training and (3) The number of FTE vocational education teachers within the school, as computed in accordance with guidelines prescribed by the department, providing CTE instruction in grades 9–12 and except as provided under W.S. 21-2-202(a)(xxvii).


Wyo. Stat. § 21-13-309

FY22 Budget

*Information is based on Academic Year 2011–2012. RTI International identified an approach called funding for area CTE centers (ATCs). This funding is often in addition to foundational and categorical models, which funds secondary CTE programs more broadly across a state. Typically, states dedicate categorical funding to ATCs, which is distributed using cost-based, student-based or unit-based formulas. Advance CTE categorized states allocating funding to ATCc in FY22 by how the funds are distributed rather than using a separate category. Source: State Strategies for Financing Career and Technical Education

**Total FY22 State Appropriation to Secondary CTE appropriation amounts are estimated due to multiple streams of state funding. Also, some funding streams in states may also support non-secondary CTE initiatives (e.g., postsecondary CTE). To categorize state funding models for FY 2022, Advance CTE used the definitions of foundational and categorical funding and the respective approaches found in State Strategies for Financing Career and Technical Education; additionally, a new hybrid funding model definition was included. 

***Information based on a research scan conducted in 2022, a national survey of State CTE Directors in 2022 and in-depth interviews with state and local CTE leaders in 2023.